Biology : asked on yfnal3x
 29.04.2021

(c) Describe the hormone and signaling protein combination that produced the greatest and most prolonged response. For the phosphorylated STAT5 response that reached 100 percent at 10 minutes in figure 1A, calculate the rate of decrease (percent decrease per minute) in the detected level of phosphorylated STAT5 from 10 to 30 minutes.

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17.02.2022, solved by verified expert
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Insulin and protein kinase B interaction is the greatest and most prolonged response as is seen in the graph. Protein kinase B level reached to 100 after 30 minutes as insulin added while the level remained to near 80 even after 240 minutes.

The level of STAT 5 at the 10th minute = 100

The level of STAT 5 at 30th minute = 35

From 10 to 30 minutes, the level of STAT 5 = 100 – 35

From 10 to 30 minutes, the level of STAT 5 = 65

Duration = 30 – 10 minutes

Duration = 20 minutes

Rate of decrease = 65/20

Rate of decrease = 3.25 levels/min

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Answer a:

In the case of growth hormone, it activates the STAT5 signaling pathway. Therefore, initially, as the hepatocytes sense growth hormone, they imitate the STAT 5 pathway, which after some time maintains a steady rate.

In the addition of insulin, it activates Protein kinase B pathway initially.

Answer b:

The dependent variable in the experiment is the level of STAT 5 and protein kinase B proteins. Those proteins are depending upon the independent variables growth hormone and insulin. A negative control should be the addition of the same amount of water into hepatocytes, which will give no effect to the protein levels.

The researcher wants to identify short and long term effects of both hormones in terms of whether the signaling pathway interacts with each other or not and to identify the steady-state of the signaling pathway. That is why the researcher run the experiment for 240 minutes.

Answer c:

Insulin and protein kinase B interaction is the greatest and most prolonged response as is seen in the graph. Protein kinase B level reached to 100 after 30 minutes as insulin added while the level remained to near 80 even after 240 minutes.

The level of STAT 5 at the 10th minute = 100

The level of STAT 5 at 30th minute = 35

From 10 to 30 minutes, the level of STAT 5 = 100 – 35

From 10 to 30 minutes, the level of STAT 5 = 65

Duration = 30 – 10 minutes

Duration = 20 minutes

Rate of decrease = 65/20

Rate of decrease = 3.25 levels/min

Answer d:

The claim by the researcher is supported because of the known functions of insulin and growth factors. Both hormones have a tendency to respond to the presence of glucose. The growth hormone initiates STAT5 signaling for producing the Igf-1 factor that is important for utilizing glucose. The insulin hormone is well known for utilizing glucose.

Biology
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The rate of decrease in the detected level of STAT5 from 10 to 30 mins is ;

3.25 level/min

From the graph attached

Insulin and protein Kinase produces the best/greatest and prolonged response. Even After 30 minutes Protein kinase B hits ; 100 while Insulin levels increase as well.

The STAT5 level  at 10th minute = 100  while at 30th minute = 35

∴ Δ STAT5 level = 100 - 35 = 65

  ΔTime = 30 mins - 20 mins = 20

 The rate of decrease = ( Δ STAT5 level ) / ( Δ Time )

                                   = 65 / 20 =  3.25 level / min

Hence we can conclude that The rate of decrease in the detected level of phosphorylated STAT5 from 10 to 30 mins = 3.25 level/min.

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