18.01.2020

If an established bowling alley offers extreme promotions (for example, three free games every day) for the purpose of running a new competitor out of town and out of business, the established bowling alley is practicing.

predatory pricing
price fixing
price discrimination
discount pricing

. 2

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28.07.2023, solved by verified expert
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The established bowling alley is practicing predatory pricing. Predatory pricing is a strategy where a product or service is set at a very low price with the intention of driving competitors out of the market, or to create a barrier for new competitors to enter the market. In this case, the established bowling alley is offering extreme promotions (three free games a day) which could potentially run a new competitor out of business. This is how it works: because the established bowling alley is well-established, it likely has a larger resource base and can afford to take the loss that comes with offering free or extremely cheap services. A new competitor, however, would not have the same level of resources and could not afford to offer similar promotions without suffering financially. As a result, customers are likely to go to the established bowling alley for the great promotions, leaving the new competitor with fewer customers and less revenue. It’s worth noting that while this strategy may be advantageous for the established bowling alley in the short term, predatory pricing is generally considered an unethical and anti-competitive practice and may be illegal in many jurisdictions. Price fixing, price discrimination, and discount pricing do not fit in this situation. Price fixing is an agreement among competitors to keep prices at a certain level, price discrimination involves selling the same product at different prices to different buyers, and discount pricing is simply a strategy where items are sold at a reduced price - none of these describe what the bowling alley is doing accurately.
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Explanation:

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Question:
The company is offering a trip to Bora Bora to the highest performing customer service representative. Although Ben would love to win the trip he isn't motivated to put in his best effort because he doesn't think that he can outperform his colleagues.

Options:
A.) Equity Theory
B.) Expectancy Theory
C.) Two-factor Theory

Answer:
B.) Expectancy Theory

Explanation:
Expectancy theory (16/9) (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes that an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome. However, at the core of the theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. This is done before making the ultimate choice. The outcome is not the sole determining factor in making the decision of how to behave.
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External aspect is environmental context competitor's customer wants, needs and potentials. 

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Options:

a. The small land-owner had an advantage in the negotiations by possessing something that the mine needed. 

b. It allowed for equality in the negotiations between interested parties. 

c. The impoverished context allowed the government to gain access to the land. 

d. No real impact?

Answer:

c. The impoverished context allowed the government to gain access to the land. 

Explanation:

The explorations that led to the discovery of Tintaya mine go back to 1917. In 1971, the Peruvian government promoted the exploitation  of the mine. In 1980, the expropriation of approximately 4,000 hectares of land, owned by the communities, was carried out. It is for this reason that started a dispute between the commoners and the Company. In 1985 the exploitation of Tintaya began and it became the third producer of the country. In 1994, the mine was bought by Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP), who subsequently merged with the company Billiton, forming the second biggest group in the world production of minerals. In 2001, the first proposal for the framework agreement was made public. An agreement was reached and the framework agreement was consolidated in 2003. The signature of the framework agreement was an innovative milestone. Never before, a mining company had agreed to transfer a percentage of profits to communities and to engage to dialogue with them at all times. In 2005, a violent takeover occurred of the Tintaya facilities. A reformulation of the framework agreement was demanded. The implementation of the framework agreement was taking place very slowly. The president of BHP Billiton had to suspend the mining activity until a new agreement was reached. Then the negotiations began again. Xstrata Cooper (now Glencore) bought Tintaya from BHP Billiton in 2006. The owner changed, but the same conflicts and mobilizations continued until 2012. The last stoppage lasted eight days. During this paralysis, violent acts occurred and even the mine was asked to close, which was completely rejected by the government. At present, no resolution or reformulation of the framework agreement has been reached. 

So is often the case, the expansion of mining activity led to the expropriation or purchase of land, back in 1980, from five communities and left open conflicts (low prices, evictions, illegitimate negotiations, etc.), as well as various environmental and human rights problems.

Business
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Although the question does not provide any options, we can say that the set of factors in the ethical decision-making process are individual, collective, and social.

Ethics and integrity should be "common sense." Moral values and attitudes are so important as key behaviors by the members of the organization. If employees are not guided by these concepts, the risk is that they could deviate from the guidelines and performance expected by the management.

The leader of the company and top management are the ones who have to set the example in order for the workers to follow those steps. The leader has to set an example of the conduct expected in the organization.

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Answer:

Yes, she could be her own boss. She could use a sole proprietorship , also known as a sole tradership, individual entrepreneurship or proprietorship, is a type of enterprise owned and run by one person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity. A sole trader does not necessarily work "alone"—it is possible for the sole trader to employ other people.

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